Fragaria × ananassa
Strawberry with scientific name of Fragaria X ananassa is a species of mongrel and belongs to the genus of Fragaria. The date of this fruit backs to 2000 years ago. Today`s strawberry came about 200 years ago from cross-breeding between Virginiana or Scarlett strawberry as male parents and Chiloensis strawberry as female parents. This plant has been cultivated in Europe about 1300 AD. The wild strawberries in the 14th century AD in France were transferred from the forest to the farmland and became a domestic plant. Around 1600 AD Virginia strawberry from the Fragaria Virginiana variety came to Europe from North America. The spread of this species was very gradual and gradually became popular in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In the 1610s one of French statesmen named Fraser took the chiloensis strawberry from Chile to France. The cultivation of this plant expanded in northern France and sometime after the crossbreeding of this strawberry with Virginiana strawberry a new model was created. This new model was exported to America in 1800s. British gardeners grew new species through seed, after that the number of strawberry variety increased from three to thirty varieties. Many people suspect that strawberry is called this name because of the covering of this plant bushes with straw. Some sources mention the strawberry name from this fact that first time young people picked up wild strawberries and sold in masses surrounded by grass, however, the exact origin of this plant`s name is still unknown to us. It seems that the first modified variety in the Qajar period and at the time of Azam Atabak came from France to Iran and was called to Atabaki.
1. Improving Cardiovascular System Function
A research was done at Harvard school of public health that its result was published by journal of American college of nutrition. Based on this result, consumption of strawberry reduces the risk of heart disease. This research was done on 27 thousand women in a ten-year period and showed the risk of cardiovascular disease is 14% lower in women who took 2 or more serving of strawberry per week in comparison to those who did not consume this fruit. Based on the results of this research, the total cholesterol level and lipoprotein with low density level (LDL) also reduced by consumption of strawberry. Another research on volunteers showed that daily consumption of 500g of strawberry for one month significantly reduced total cholesterol level, lipoprotein with low density and triglyceride level and also level of serum of malondialdehyde in compared to pre-consumption mode. Based on this considering, Anthocyanin of strawberry increased the antioxidant capacity of plasma and elimination of free radicals and also Vitamin levels significantly increased after consumption of strawberry. This study has shown that consumption of strawberry significantly reduced self-hemolysis (Hemolysis: destruction and breakdown of red blood cells) and oxidative. A study in Harvard has shown that regular consumption of strawberry reduced the risk of heart attack in young and middle-aged women who consumed at least 3 serving of strawberry per week by 32%. Quercetin is the flavonoid of strawberry that has natural anti-inflammatory property and reduces risk of atherosclerosis (strain hardening) and also injuries caused by lipoprotein with low density and cholesterol level.
2. Regulating Blood Glucose Levels
The research in 2011 has shown that consumption about 37 strawberries in a day significantly reduced complications of diabetes as renal and neuropathy diseases. Index of blood glucose level in strawberry is very low therefore it is more appropriate for diabetic people than the other fruits. Based on the other research Fisetin of strawberry reduces the risk of renal disease in diabetic mice. The research in Finland country it also has been said that the consumption of strawberry with white bread increased Glycemic response (change of blood glucose level after consumption of food containing carbohydrates) in these people by 36% compared with women who just consume bread. The results have shown that polyphenols of strawberry reduced the breakdown speed and absorption of carbohydrates and the need for insulin to regulate normal blood glucose level.
3. Promoting Weight Loss
Based on the article published in book of resistant diet to fat, consumption of strawberry increases secretion of hormones of adiponectin and leptin. Both of these hormones are metabolic and fat burning hormones. The result of secretion of these hormones is increased metabolism and weight loss. Other researches have shown that strawberry reduces digestion of starchy foods and it means that blood glucose level is controlled after use of food and as a result the desire to consume sugar is reduced. Polyphenols of strawberry reduce the secretion of starch digesting enzyme. This plant also improves function of effective hormones on losing weight.
4. Improving Brain Function
Deover et al. did a research on 16 thousand women for 6-years period in 2012. The result of this research has shown the effect of strawberry consumption on the memory of these people. Based on the results the rate of memory loss in people who consumed more strawberries was significantly slower than those who used it less or ignore its usage. Based on this matter, consumption of strawberry makes the memory 2.5 years younger. Researchers believe that improvement of memory in these people is due to flavonoids of strawberry. The other research has shown that consumption of this fruit reduces the risk of Alzheimer disease. The study on laboratory mice in 2014 has shown that flavonoid of fisetin of strawberry reduces the risk of Alzheimer`s disease in mice with and without Alzheimer`s gene.
5. Promoting Oral and Dental Health
A research was published in 2009 that has shown that Strawberries polyphenols prevent starch breaking in the mouth, sticking sugar to teeth, creating plaque and tooth decay and access of gum disease due to the activity of bacteria. Based on the other research, malic acid of strawberry helps to whiten the teeth.
A research was published in international journal of cancer that has shown the extract of strawberry inhibits the growth of lung tumors in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. A clinical trial in China in 2012 showed that frozen strawberries prevent cancer of the esophagus. Based on this research strawberries protect the body against other cancers such as the mouth, breast and cervix. Studies of university of Illinois at America have shown that Ellagic acid of strawberry inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Lutein of this plant also fights with free radicals and minimizes their negative effect.
Anthocyanins especially Cyanidin and Pelargonidin, Flavonol (Procyanidin, Catechin, Epigallocatechin, Epicatechin, Gallocatechin, Kaempferol and Quercetin), Hydroxybenzoic acids, Hydroxy acids (Cinnamic acid, Coumaric acid, Caffeic acid and Ferulic acid), Resveratrol, Antioxidants.
Strawberry is traditionally used for treatment of diseases such as atherosclerosis, gout, gravel and inflammatory diseases. This fruit is also a helpful treatment for gum disease. Ancient Romans believed that this fruit was a valuable medicine and used it to treat various diseases including melancholy and kidney stone. Strawberries are cool fruits, increase urine and remove tooth decay and are recommended for people with diseases such as diabetes. Salts of this fruit are useful for treatment of constipation and due to the presence of sufficient amount of calcium and phosphorus it has a significant effect on the growth of children and teenagers. Strawberries are effective in reducing and eliminating fear, anger, anxiety, excitement and weakness. It increases lifespan and prevents stroke.